Science Technology During Industrial RevolutionBackgroundIn 1750, most people in Europe lived on small farms and produced most of their needsby hand. A century later, many people lived in cities and most of their needs wereproduced by complex machines using steam power. The Industrial Revolution began inGreat Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the United States and Japan. Itwas a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, and altered the way peoplelived. The Industrial Revolution was a time of scientific and technological advancement.AgricultureThe Dutch led the way in improvements for agriculture. They built dikes to protectfarmland from the seas, and improved fertilizers. The British improved on many of thesemethods, and developed others of their own, including breeding better livestock to aid inwork and mixing different soils to yield a better crop. Jethro Tull, a British farmer andinventor, created the mechanical seed drill to aid in planting.EnergyBritain experienced a revolution in energy use as they switched from animal power, towater power, to steam power in a few short years. In 1712, Thomas Newcomendeveloped a steam engine powered by coal. This engine was used to pump water out ofmines. Later, James Watt would improve on this engine, and Watt's steam engine wouldbe the power source of the Industrial Revolution.New TechnologyOnce steam power became prominent, most machines used in the production of clothbecame "powered".