Medicine powerpoint

Jun 29th, 2015
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Comprehensive power points in gynecology, internal medicine, ophthalmology, pharmacology, etc

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MALPRESENTATION OR MALPOSITION Definitions:Fetal attitude (habitus): relationship of one fetal part to another. Singleton: A fetus that develops aloneStation: The degree of descent of the presenting part of the fetus through the maternal pelvis, as measured in relation to the ischial spines of the maternal pelvis.Breech presentationDefinition:Breech presentation occurs when the fetal pelvis or lower extremities engage in the maternal pelvic inletEpidemiologyBreech presentation occurs in 3-4% of all deliveries. The percentage of breech deliveries decreases with advancing gestational age from 25% of births prior to 28 weeks' gestation to 7% of births at 32 weeks' gestation to 1-3% of births at termPerinatal mortality is increased 2- to 4-fold with breech presentation, regardless of the mode of delivery. Deaths are most often associated with malformations, prematurity, and intrauterine fetal demiseClassification:Three types of breech are distinguished, according to fetal attitude 1. Frank breech: (50-70%) The hips are flexed, extended knees bilaterally (pike position). 2. Complete breech: (5-10%) Both hips and knees are flexed (cannonball position). 3. Footling breech: (10-30%) One or both hips extended, foot presenting one (single footling breech) or both (double footling breech) legs are extended below the level of the buttocks.In singleton breech presentations in which the infant weighs less than 2500 g, 40% are frank breech, 10% complete breech, an

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