Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry

Jun 29th, 2015
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Alkane Functional Groups, Alkanes isomers, Common Names, Physical Properties, Conformations

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Organic Compounds: Alkanes and TheirStereochemistrySurvey of Functional GroupsSurvey of Functional GroupsSurvey of Functional GroupsSurvey of Functional GroupsAlkanes (Parafins)Alkane IsomersThe molecular formula of an alkane with more than three carbons cangive more than one structure C4 (butane) = butane and isobutane (constitutional isomers) C5 (pentane) = pentane, 2-methylbutane, and 2,2-dimethylpropaneAlkanes with Cs connected to no more than 2 other Cs are straightchain or normal alkanesAlkanes with one or more Cs connected to 3 or 4 Cs are branchedchain alkanesConstitutional Isomers Isomers that differ in how their atoms are arranged in chains arecalled constitutional isomers Compounds other than alkanes can be constitutional isomers ofone another They must have the same molecular formula to be isomersAlkyl GroupsAlkyl group remove one H from an alkane (a part of a structure)General abbreviation R (for Radical, an incomplete species or therest of the molecule)Name: replace -ane ending of alkane with -yl ending CH3 is methyl (from methane) CH2CH3 is ethyl from ethaneSome Common NamesSome Common NamesSome Common NamesSome Common NamesTypes of Alkyl groupsClassified by the connection site a carbon at the end of a chain (primary alkyl group) a carbon in the middle of a chain (secondary alkyl group) a carbon

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