Organic Chemistry -John McMurry

Jun 29th, 2015
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Fairleigh Dickinson University
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Chapter 1 powerpoint slides: Periodic Tables, Quantum Mechanics, Electron Configuration, Bonding, Molecular Orbital Theory, Chemical Structures, Methane, Ethylene, Acetylene

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Periodic Table of the Elementsd ~ 2 x 10E-10 or 200pmAtomic Number and Atomic Mass The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the atom'snucleus The mass number (A) is the number of protons plus neutrons All the atoms of a given element have the same atomic number Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have differentnumbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers The atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is the weightedaverage mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an elements naturallyoccurring isotopesQuantum mechanics: describes electron energies and locationsby a wave equation Wave function solution of wave equation Each wave function is an orbital, A plot of describes where electron most likely to be Electron cloud has no specific boundary so we show mostprobable area.Electronic Configuration Orbitals are grouped in shells of increasing size and energy Different shells contain different numbers and kinds of orbitals Each orbital can be occupied by two electronsGround State Electronic Configuration1. Lowest-energy orbitals fill first: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d (Aufbau principle)2. Electrons act as if they were spinning around an axis. Electronspin can have only two orientations, up and down . Only twoelectrons can occupy an orbital, and they must be of oppositespin (Pauli exclusion principle) to have unique wave equations3. If two or more

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