Igneous rocks

Jun 30th, 2015
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● Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma, molten rock. If this takes place underground, crystalline plutonic rocks develop. If the magma erupts as lava or fragmental (pyroclastic) materials, then the resulting rocks show few if any crystals and are called volcanic. Granite and basalt are two common types of igneous rocks.

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CHAPTER 4 Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma, molten rock. If this takes place underground, crystalline plutonic rocks develop. If the magma erupts as lava or fragmental (pyroclastic) materials, then the resulting rocks show few if any crystals and are called volcanic. Granite and basalt are two common types of igneous rocks. Each igneous rock type has a plutonic and volcanic equivalent. For example, granite, which is a plutonic rock, is chemically identical to rhyolite, a volcanic rock, even though these two rocks have very different physical appearances. Magma forms under restricted conditions of high temperature and low pressure inside Earth. Although rock is hot throughout the planets interior, there are only a few zones where the pressure is low enough for the rock to melt. One is the outer core, and the other is the asthenosphere. Most of the molten rock produced at shallow levels in Earth originates where upwelling currents of hot mantle material rapidly rise into the lower-pressure environmentof the asthenosphere. Magma transfers not onlymatter toward the surface but heat as well. Heat from mantle-derived magma contributes to melting continental sedimentary and metamorphic rocks at convergent plate margins to generate granitic magmas. The sedimentaryand metamorphic rocks contain trapped water, which lowers the melting temperature of the rock in some cases by hundreds of degrees. Magma may be defined chemically as ma

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