geology - MINERALS

Jun 30th, 2015
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DEFINITION: naturally occurring inorganic homogeneous solid that has a definite chemical composition and an ordered internal structure. Mineraloid • Naturally occurring inorganic material that is amorphous(solid with no long-range order of the positions of atoms) – ex. Obsidian, opal, glass, pearl, etc.Polymorphism• Ability of a specific chemical substance

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LECTURE 3MINERALSDEFINITION: naturally occurring inorganic homogeneous solid that has a definite chemical composition and an ordered internal structure MineraloidNaturally occurring inorganic material that is amorphous(solid with no long-range order of the positions of atoms) ex. Obsidian, opal, glass, pearl, etc.PolymorphismAbility of a specific chemical substance to crystallize in more than one configuration, which is dependent upon changes in temperature, pressure, or both (ex. Pyrite, marcasite, graphite, diamond) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES1. Color caused by the absorption or lack of absorption of various wavelengths of light2. Streak the color of the mineral in powdered form (not necessarily similar to the color in unpowdered form).3. Hardness the strength of the structure of the mineral relative to the strength of its chemical bondTHE MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS1. Talc6. Orthoclase2. Gypsum7. Quartz3. Calcite8. Topaz4. Fluorite9. Corundum5. Apatite10. Diamond*2.5 Fingernail, 3.5 Copper coin, 5 Steel nail, 5-6 Glass, 7 Streak Plate4. Crystal form the shapes and aggregates that a certain mineral is likely to formFibrous, acicular, platy, botryoidal5. Cleavage the tendency of a mineral to break in particular directions due to zones of weakness in the crystal structure (cleavage in 1, 2 and 3 directions)Fracture or irregular breakage occur when bond strengths in a crystal structure is equal in all d

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