history of the iphone

Jun 30th, 2015
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Abraham Lincoln University
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The Newton MessagePad was an early handheld device manufactured by Apple in the mid-1990s. Some of its concepts and functions have been incorporated into theiPhone.

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TetrahedronLettersTetrahedron Letters 46 (2005) 68796882Ecient method for the direct preparationof amides from carboxylic acids using tosyl chlorideunder solvent-free conditionsAli Khala-Nezhad,a,* Abolfath Parhami,aMohammad Navid Soltani Radb and Abdolkarim ZareaaaDepartment of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313, IranbReceived 22 June 2005; revised 26 July 2005; accepted 2 August 2005Available online 18 August 2005AbstractA simple, clean and highly ecient solvent-free procedure for the preparation of primary, secondary, tertiary and aromatic amides is described from the direct reaction of carboxylic acids and silica-supported ammonium salts, triethylamine (TEA)and tosyl chloride (TsCl) as condensing agent. The reaction proceeds rapidly in high yields at room temperature. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.1. IntroductionThe amide functional group is important in organic andbiological chemistry. Amides are important as pharmaceuticals1 as well as agrochemicals.2 The preparation ofamides from their corres

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