geology : Folds

Jun 30th, 2015
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Certainly, folds are visually intriguing geologic structures. Geologists have long been drawn to the drama and spectacle of folded rocks. There is, as Hans Cloos (1939) observed, a special satisfaction and awe to be found in the evidence of earth stress having deformed originally planar and rigid rock into coherent arches many hundreds of feet high

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FOLDS -- FOLDED SEDIMENTARY ROCKSBoth anticlinal ridges and valleysandsynclinal ridges and valleys are less common that other types of valleys and ridges in terrains of folded rocks. The diagram shows why. Imagine a stack of folded sediments with one resistant bed in it. Anticlinal or synclinal ridges and or valleys could only occur very near the levels of the green lines below -- anticlinal ridges/synclinal valleys at the upper green line, and reversed topography at the lower. Erosion in any other place would either produce no valley and ridge topography (upper red line) or ridges formed only on the limbs of the folds (lower red line). Because these ridges would have beds dipping only in one direction they are calledhomoclinal ridgesand the valleys beside them are calledhomoclinal valleys.The composite image below shows Germany valley, WV from the south. The lower panorama shows the entire valley north of US33. Though there are numerous hills and ridges in the photo, the two important ones are North Fork Mountain at the extreme right and the River Knobs with numerous of its gaps indicated by arrows. the high ridges to the left of it are part (the "Front") of the Allegheny Plateau, and are not part of the fold. The top right inset shows the crest of North form Mountain, where a resistant sandstone bed is apparent, with a gentle dip to the right (ESE). Examination of this bed indicates that it is the Silurian Tuscarora Sandstone, and that

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