Typhoid fever

Apr 8th, 2015
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Study guide on Typhoid fever

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Typhoid feverDr WanjikubackgroundTyphoid fever, also known as enteric feveris a potentially fatal multisystemic illness caused primarily by Salmonellatyphi a gram negative bacilli.S typhi typhos, smoke or cloud that was believed to cause diseaseand madness.In the advanced stages of typhoid fever, the patient's level ofconsciousness is truly cloudedcausesEnteric fever can also be caused byS paratyphi AS paratyphi BS paratyphi CNon typhoidal salmonella (S typhimurium andS enteritidis)Spectrum of clinical infectionsS typhi causes a wide spectrum of illnesses inhumans namely: Gastroenteritis Enteric fever Bacteremia and endovascular infections Focal metastatic infections e g osteomyelitisor abscesses Chronic asymptomatic carrier stateMicrobiology s typhiHas 3 antigensH flagellaO lipopolysaccharideV1 capsular polysaccharide antigenThey are lactose and oxidase negative andform white colonies on mconkey agar.They produce hydrogen sulphideepidemiologyIncidence highest in south central Asia (>100cases per 100000 population/ year)10 100 cases in Asia , Latin America andAfrica< 10 cases in the rest of the worldtransmissionS typhi has no nonhuman vectors.1.Oral transmission . Through food handlers sheddingin stool or urineHand-to-mouth transmission : poor hand hygieneOral transmission via sewage-contam

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