tetanus management

Apr 8th, 2015
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Study guide on Tetanus

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TETANUSEU MBCHB 3DR D M KILLINGOINTRODUCTION Tetanus is a nervous system disordercharacterised by increased muscle tone andspasm A.k.a lock jaw Caused by tetanospasmin ( a powerfulprotein elaborated by Clostridium tetani)EPIDEMIOLOGY Incidence has greatly reduced worldwide (more soin the developed countries) since the advent ofuniversal vaccination Developing countries still have significantly largeno.s of tetanus with ~ 1m cases per year. E.g.among pts. admitted for neurological conditions ina nigerian hospital: 50% stroke, 14% tetanus, 12%meningitisEtiologic Agent Clostridiumtetani Anaerobic, motile, gram positive rod Has a terminal oval spore givingappearance of a tennis raquet or a drumstick Found in soil, animal faeces and evenhuman faeces Spores survive for years and showresistance to disinfectants and boiling for 20minutesClostridium tetani .contd The vegetative cells are however easilyinactivated and are susceptible to variousantibiotics (flagyl, penicillin)The toxin - tetanospasmin Formed in vegetative cells Is a single polypeptide chain that undergoesautolysis to form a hetero dimer consistingof: a heavy chain (100kda) that moderatesbinding to nerve cell receptors and entryinto these cells A light chain (50kda) which acts to blockNT releasePre-requisites for tetanospasminelaboration2 or more of the following needed for tetanospasminelaboration in the

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