Bronchilitis infection

Apr 8th, 2015
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Study guide on Bronchilitis infection

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BRONCHIOLITISDefinition: Bronchiolitis is an acute, infectious, inflammatory disease of theupper and lower respiratory tract that results in obstruction ofthe small airways. The definition for most clinical studies is the first episode ofwheezing in a child younger than 12 to 24 months who hasphysical findings of a viral infection and has no otherexplanation for the wheezing, such as pneumonia or atopy The broader definition is a wheezing illness due to primaryinfection or reinfection with a viral or bacterial pathogen,resulting in inflammation of the small airways or bronchioles.Etiology: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause; lesscommon causes include rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenzavirus, human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, and humanbocavirus (discovered in 2005). RSV causes 20-40% of all cases and 44% of cases involvingchildren younger than 2 years. Parainfluenza virus causes 10-30% of all bronchiolitis cases. Adenovirus accounts for 5-10% of cases of bronchiolitis. Influenza virus accounts for 10-20% of cases of bronchiolitis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounts for 5-15% of cases ofbronchiolitis, particularly among older children and adults. Two respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtypes, A and B, havebeen identified, with subtype A causing most severe infections. The disease is highly contagious. Viral shedding in nasal secretions continues for 6-21 days afterdevelopment of symp

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