Introduction to quantum _computers

Jul 7th, 2015
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Civilization has advanced as people discovered new ways of exploiting various physical resources such as materials, forces and energies. The history of computer technology has involved a sequence of changes of physical realization - from gears to relays to valves to transistors to integrated circuits and so on. Today's advanced lithographic techniques can squeeze fraction of micron wide logic gates and wires onto the surface of silicon chips. Soon they will yield even smaller parts and inevitably reach a point where logic gates are so small that they are made out of only a handful of atoms.

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CHAPTER-1 Introduction Civilization has advanced as people discovered new ways of exploiting various physical resources such as materials, forces and energies. The history of computer technology has involved a sequence of changes of physical realization - from gears to relays to valves to transistors to integrated circuits and so on. Today's advanced lithographic techniques can squeeze fraction of micron wide logic gates and wires onto the surface of silicon chips. Soon they will yield even smaller parts and inevitably reach a point where logic gates are so small that they are made out of only a handful of atoms. On the atomic scale matter obeys the rules of quantum mechanics, which are quite different from the classical rules that determine the properties of conventional logic gates. So if computers are to become smaller in the future, quantum technology must replace or supplement what we have now. The point is, however, that quantum technology can offer much more than cramming more and more bits to silicon and multiplying the clock-speed of microprocessors. It can support entirely new kind of computation with qualitatively new algorithms based on quantum principles!What is Quantum Computing?As firms continue to expand the role of IT within their corporations and demand computers that are able to handle more complex computations, technologists are arriving at the realization that the curr

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