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Unam SanctamFor this [spiritual] authority, although given to a man andexercised by a man, is not human, but rather divine, given atGods mouth to Peter and established on a rock for him and hissuccessors in Him whom he confessed. . . .Whoever thereforeresists this power thus ordained of God, resists the ordinance ofGod. . . .Furthermore, we declare, state, and define andpronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation forevery human creature to be subject to the Roman pontiff.Philip IV of FrancePope Boniface VIIIBabylonian Captivity(Avignon)Captivity in AvignonBabylonian CaptivityPopes palace in AvignonPope Clement VRome was the capital of the universal church. Thepope was the bishop of Rome just as Peter was thefirst bishop of Rome.Popes were seen as captives of the French monarch.A vast majority of the new cardinals were French.But most of all, the increased bureaucracy andcentralized administration of the church made itmore political than ever.The increased taxes to make up for lost revenuefrom Rome as well as the extravagant lifestyle of theAvignon popes led for the recall to Rome.Papal Prestige DeclinedCrisis for the ChurchAfter the death of Gregory XI, the Roman mobsthreatened the cardinals if an Italian wasnt chosen.Pope Urban VI was Italian.The French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VIIwho took up residence in Avignon.Europe was divided along lines f

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