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Ancient CivilizationsThe Fertile CrescentMesopotamiaMesopotamiaIraqCities, Kings, and TradeEarly Mesopotamiansociety was a societyof villages and citieslinked together in asystem of mutualinterdependence.Cities needed surplusfood to feed urbaneliteCities providedvillages with militaryprotection, marketsand specialistproduced goodsUrBabylon began life as a modest town which hadbeen seized from Kazallu, but was quickly fortifiedby the building of a city wall in the nineteenthcentury BCCity-StatesSometimes citystates fought overresources like landand waterCity-states oftencooperated insharing resourcesand tradeCity-states couldmobilize humanresources to opennew agriculturalland and to buildPowerTemples and palaceswere two centers ofpowerTemples werelandholders andtheir priestscontrolled lots ofwealth.Religious powerpredates secularpower of kingsSecular leadershipdeveloped whenbig men (lugal)GilgameshThis epic providesan example of theexercise of secularpower.Strongest man Wise and brave Builds walls for city Brings valuableresources tocommunityLarger Territorial StatesAkkadFounded by Sargon ofAkkad (2350 BCE)Called King of Sumerand AkkadGained and held controlthrough efficientmeasures:got rid of the walls ofconquered cities andinstalling a governorGave soldiers land

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