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Labeling theorists are adamant about the labels that offenders are given throughout the criminal justice system. Labels, such as ex-felons, are deepening the very behavior that they are meant to halt because of stereotypes that incite an individual trying to recover after a prison term. The labeling theory argues that the criminal justice system is limited in its capacity to restrain unlawful conduct but also is a major factor in anchoring people into criminal careers. The cultural deviance theory explains the causes of criminal behavior in urban areas are not about the poverty suffered in those areas but the product of a distinct lower-class culture whose focal concern is deviance against the norms of society. The theory identified 3 influential versions: • Lower-class culture as a whole is responsible for generating crime in urban areas. • Urban lower-class areas produce subcultures that are responsible for the rise of crime. • Subcultures of crimes in which individuals come together t

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CRJS410-IP1NameClassDateProfessorCRJS410-IP1 Criminological theories are developed to explain why criminal offenders commit crime. The labeling theory finds crime is a result of stereotyping or defining an offender as a criminal which in turn results in the individual displaying criminal behavior. As a result of the label that is put on the criminal offender the offenders conforms their behavior to meet the expectations of society. The cultural deviance theory finds the fault of crime is the urban area and lower class citizens. Criminal subcultures that emerge in urban areas are the reason crime trends spike and gang's crime emerges. The rational choice theory looks at the offenders to discern why crime occurs but does not but the blame it on a particular group or environment but instead on the choices made by the criminal offender. The rational choice theory finds that a criminal offender will weigh the benefits against the possible consequence when committing a crime. In other words they will make a choice based on free will and possible financial, emotional, or physical gain. Instead of focusing on the circumstances that result in the criminal offender committing the crime the rational choice theories adopt quite a different approach to the study of social action, human agency, and social systems and structures (Regina, 2010). The rational choice theory finds all people that commit crimes act rationally. Whether or not the environm

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