Infiltration, Ground water, Soil erosion and Management

Apr 15th, 2015
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Infiltration is a surface process: water (e.g., rain) moves from above to below the soil surface. As water moves in, air must either (1) escape, or (2) be compressed below the infiltrating water. Generally air escapes through larger pores, which slows the infiltration. e.g; Sometimes you see bubbles in puddles while it’s raining.

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Infiltration, Ground water, Soil erosion and ManagementInfiltrationInfiltration is a surface process: water (e.g., rain) moves from above to below the soil surface.As water moves in, air must either (1) escape, or (2) be compressed below the infiltrating water. Generally air escapes through larger pores, which slows the infiltration. e.g; Sometimes you see bubbles in puddles while it's raining.Infiltration is important for: Soil water recharge (e.g., for plants)Groundwater rechargeRiver baseflow Erosion (water that doesn't infiltrate runs off)FloodingContaminant movementSoil properties important to infiltration:Texture, pore size distributionHydraulic conductivityStructure (including macropores for air escape)Antecedent (initial) water contentLayeringSoil management affects infiltration Infiltration rate over time Why this decrease?At short times:Air escapes more easilyGreater hydraulic gradientInfiltration rate over time Infiltration...........Infiltration is nearly impossible to measure directly - as we would disturb the sample in doing so. The exact point at which the atmosphere ends and the soil beings is very difficult to define.InfiltrationFlow influencesHead (ponding)Viscosity (function of temperature)Water qualitySoil chemistrySoil and water temperatureAir entrapmentSoil surface conditionsLand useVegetation coverRoughness and slopeSurface sealingSubsurface conditionsSoilTexturePorosityD

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