surgical procedures and management

Apr 15th, 2015
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Genitourinary ImagingDr C.A.ODENY6 - 2- 20121Urinary SystemMethods of imaging:1. Plain films2. Ultrasound3. Intravenous urogram (pyelogram) - (IVU, IVP;excretion urography)4. Micturating cystogram or cystourethrogram (MCUG)5. Urethrogram (ascending urethrogram)6.7.8.9.Radionuclide studies:Computed tomography (CT)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Angiography21. ULTRASOUND- investigation of choice in children- In adults, it is second to IVU depending onindicationAdvantages:it is cheap and readily availableit is safe no danger of contrast reactions, can still assess kidneysin renal failureno radiationRenal size and cortical thickness can be easily assessed.renal texture can be assessed e.g. large and echogenic in acutenephritisrenal masses are seen, even if only small (earlier than on IVP),tumor staging e.g. renal vein involvementthe bladder wall, prostate can be assessedresidual urine can be measured fairly accuratelyother pelvis abnormalities may be visualised e.g. ovarian mass orfibroids3Ultrasound; contDisadvantages:the ureters cannot be seen unless dilated.calyceal detail cannot be seen which isnecessary for assessment of chronicpyelonephritis, papillary necrosis andtuberculosisUro-endothelial (transitional cell) tumours of therenal pelvis/calyces are not visualised until large.4Ultrasound appearances of the kidneys52. PLAIN FILMS - KUBa) Calcificatio

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