Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTI-RHEUMATIC DRUGSDisease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is a category ofotherwise unrelated drugs defined by their use in rheumatoid arthritis toslow down disease progression.The term is often used in contrast to non-steroidal anti-inflammatorydrug,which refers to agents that treat the inflammation but not the underlyingcause.Although their use was first propagated in rheumatoid arthritis (hence theirname) the term has come to include many other diseases, such as Crohn'sdisease, lupus erythematosus (SLE), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP), myasthenia gravis and various others.Many of these are autoimmune disorders,Some DMARDs are mild chemotherapeutics but use a side-effect ofchemotherapy - immunosuppression as its main therapeutic benefit. Although these agents operate by different mechanisms, many of them canhave similar impact upon the course of a condition.DrugMechanismAdalimumabTNF inhibitorAzathioprinePurine synthesis inhibitorChloroquine and hydroxychloroquine(antimalarials)suppression of IL-1 & TNF-alpha, induce apoptosisof inflammatory cells and increase chemotacticfactorsCiclosporin (Cyclosporin A)inhibit calcineurinD-penicillamineReducing numbers of T-lymphocytes etc.EtanerceptTNF inhibitorGolimumabTNF inhibitorGold salts (sodium aurothiomalate,auranofin)inhibits macrophage activationInfliximabTNF inhibitorLeflunomidePyrimidine synthesis inhibito

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