Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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OPIOID ANALGESICS Within the central nervous system (CNS), the opioid receptors are localised inthe spinal cord dorsal horn, brain stem, thalamus and cortex. There are four distinct opioid receptors types and each of these has anendogenous ligand. Mu receptors, stimulated naturally by -endophins Kappa receptors stimulated by dynorphins Delta receptor stimulated by encephalins Opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor is stimulated bynociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ). These receptors are responsible not only for analgesia but also for manyadverse effects of morphine including respiratory depression and miosis. in addition to the endogenous ligands of the opioid receptor family, many othersubstances influence the pain pathways of the CNS including opioid analgesics,nitric oxide, cholecystokinin, sustance-P, biogenic amines like 5-HT andexcitatory aminoacids such as glutamate.Derivatives of opioid analgesics; Opiates are drugs derived from opium, a term for the juice of the poppy plant. Opioid is a more inclusive term, applying to all agonists or antagonists withmorphine-like activity. The term narcotic is no longer used pharmacologically because of itspejorative legal meaning. Examples include; Natural opiates; morphine Semi-synthetic; Diamorphine Oxycodone Hydrocodone Dihydrocodeine Hydromorphone Oxymorphone Diacetylmorphine (heroin) Synthetic; Pethidine Buprenorphin

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