Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN PROTOZOAL INFECTIONSThese include; Malaria Amoebiasis Trichomoniasis Trypanosomiasis Leishmaniasis Others (Babesiosis and Microsporidiosis)1AMEBIASIS Amebiasis is usually seen in those living in crowded, unsanitary conditions.Entamoeba dispar accounts for ~90% of human infections and E. histolyticafor only 10%, but only E. histolytica causes human disease.Humans are the only known hosts for these protozoa, which are transmittedalmost exclusively by the fecaloral route.E. histolytica cysts ingested from contaminated food or water transform intotrophozoites that reside in the large intestine.Many individuals infected with E. histolytica are asymptomatic but excreteinfectious cysts, making them a source for further infections.In others, E. histolytica trophozoites invade the colonic mucosa with resultingcolitis and bloody diarrhea (amebic dysentery).Rarely, E. histolytica trophozoites invade through the colonic mucosa andreach the liver via the portal circulation, where they establish an amoebic liverabscess.2Treatment of Amoebiasis Metronidazole or its analogs tinidazole and ornidazole are the cornerstone oftherapy. Diloxonide furoate is used in the eradication of the cysts of the amoeba. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the drugs of choice for amebic colitis, amebicliver abscess, and other extraintestinal form of amebiasis. Because metronidazole is so w

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