Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT Active tuberculosis will kill about two out of every three people affected if leftuntreated. Treated tuberculosis has a mortality rate of less than 5%. The standard "short" course treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is isoniazid,rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid andrifampicin alone for a further four months. The patient is considered cured at six months (although there is still a relapserate of 2 to 3%). For latent tuberculosis, the standard treatment is six to nine months of isoniazidalone.First line tuberculosis drugs;These include;o Ethambutol (EMB / E)o Isoniazid (INH / H)o Pyrazinamide (PZA / Z)o Rifampicin (RMP / R)o Streptomycin (STM / S)Second line tuberculosis drugs; There are six classes of second-line drugs (SLDs) used for the treatment oftuberculosis. A drug may be classed as second-line instead of first-line for one of twoPossible reasons:o It may be less effective than the first-line drugs(e.g., p-aminosalicylic acid);o It may have toxic side-effects (e.g., Cycloserine);o It may be unavailable in many developing countries(e.g., fluoroquinolones): Second line drugs include;o Aminoglycosides: e.g., amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KM);o Polypeptides: e.g., capreomycin, viomycin, enviomycin;o Fluoroquinolones: e.g., ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin,moxifloxacin (MXF);o Thioamides: e.g. ethionamide, prothionamideo Cycloserine (the only antibiotic in it

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