Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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CHEMOTHERAPY OF HELMINTHES Infections with helminths, or parasitic worms, affect more than two billion peopleworldwide. Immature forms invade humans via the skin or gastrointestinal (GI) tract andmature into adult worms with characteristic tissue distributions; with fewexceptions, such as Strongyloides and Echinococcus, which cannot completetheir life cycle unless they replicate themselves within the human host. Anthelmintics are drugs that act locally to expel worms from the GI tract orsystemically to eradicate adult helminths or developmental forms that invadeorgans and tissues.1TREATMENT OF HELMINTH INFECTIONSPathogenic worms are classified into;1)Roundworms (nematodes)2)Flatworms;a) Tapeworms (cestodes).b) Flukes (trematodes)2NEMATODES (ROUNDWORMS) The major nematode parasites of humans include the soil-transmittedhelminths (STHs) and the filarial nematodes. These include;1. Ascariasis2. Trichuriasis3. Hookworm4. Strongyloides Stercoralis5. Enterobius Vermicularis6. Trichinella Spiralis7. Filarisis;Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Species(Lymphatic Filariasis)Loa Loa (Loiasis)Onchocerca Volvulus(Onchocerciasis or River Blindness)3 The most widely used agents for reducing morbidity are the benzimidazoleanthelmintics (BZAs), either albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintics that eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis (riverblindness) include;I. Combination therapy with e

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