Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs orNAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic (fever-reducing) and, in higherdoses, with anti-inflammatory effects (reducing inflammation). The term "non-steroidal" is used to distinguish these drugs from steroids, which(among a broad range of other effects) have a similar eicosanoid-depressing,anti-inflammatory action. As analgesics, NSAIDs are unusual in that they are non-narcotic. NSAIDs are sometimes also referred to as non-steroidal anti-inflammatoryagents/analgesics (NSAIAs) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines(NSAIMs). The most prominent members of this group of drugs are aspirin, ibuprofen, andnaproxen partly because they are available over-the-counter in many areas.Mechanism of action Most NSAIDs act as non-selective inhibitors of the enzyme cyclooxygenase,inhibiting both the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)isoenzymes. Cyclooxygenase catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane fromarachidonic acid (itself derived from the cellular phospholipid bilayer byphospholipase A2). Prostaglandins act (among other things) as messenger molecules in the processof inflammation. This mechanism of action was elucidated by John Vane (19272004), who later received a Nobel Prize for his work (see Mechanism of action ofaspirin). NSAIDS have antipyretic activity and can be used to

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