Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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ADRENAL DISORDERSEU MBCHB VIDR D M KILLINGO07/05/2014Adrenal gland-physiologyAdrenal cortex: Synthesizes and secretes corticosteroids(mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sexhormones), all derived from cholesterol,whoseuptake is via the LDL receptor. Zona glomerulosa : produces mineralocorticoids(aldosterone-increases sodium and water absorptionand potassium secretion) Zona fasciculata : produces glucocorticoids, some sexhormones. Zona reticularis : produces estrogens and androgens,some glucocorticoidsPhysiologic Effects ofMineralocorticoidsThe major target of aldosterone is the distal tubule of the kidney, where itstimulates exchange of sodium and potassium. Three primary physiologiceffects of aldosterone result:1. Increased resorption of sodium: sodium loss in urine is decreased underaldosterone stimulation.2. Increased resorption of water, with consequent expansion of extracellular fluidvolume. This is an osmotic effect directly related to increased resorption ofsodium.3. Increased renal excretion of potassium.Aldosterone stimulates transcription of the gene encoding the sodiumpotassium ATPase, leading to increased numbers of "sodium pumps" in thebasolateral membranes of tubular epithelial cells.Aldosterone also stimulates expression of a sodium channel which facilitatesuptake of sodium from the tubular lumen.Aldosterone has effects on sweat glands, salivary glands and the colon whichare essentially identical to thos

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