Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Pharmacology notes

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ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: INTRODUCTIONViruses are obligate intracellular parasites; their replication depends primarily onsynthetic processes of the host cell.Therefore, to be effective, antiviral agents must either block viral entry into or exitfrom the cell or be active inside the host cell.As a corollary, nonselective inhibitors of virus replication may interfere with host cellfunction and produce toxicity.Viral replication consists of several steps;1) Attachment of the virus to the host cell2) Entry of the virus through the host cell membrane3) Uncoating of viral nucleic acid4) Synthesis of early regulatory proteins, eg, nucleic acid polymerases5) Synthesis of RNA or DNA6) Synthesis of late, structural proteins7) Assembly (maturation) of viral particles8) Release from the cell.Antiviral agents can potentially target any of these steps.The major sites of antiviral drug actionAGENTS TO TREAT HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV) & VARICELLA-ZOSTERVIRUS (VZV) INFECTIONS Three oral nucleoside analogs used for the treatment of HSV and VZV infections:acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. They have similar mechanisms of action and similar indications for clinical use; all arewell tolerated.Acyclovir is the only one of the three available for intravenous use.Comparative trials have demonstrated similar efficacies of these three agents for thetreatment of HSV but modest superiority of famciclovir and valacyclovir over acyclovirfo

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