Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Steroid hormonesbyHenry Wormser, Ph.D.Hormones (introduction) hormones are chemical messengers thattransport signals from one cell to another there are 4 major chemical classes ofhormonessteroid hormones - i.e. progesteronepeptide hormones - i.e. insulinamino acid derivatives - epinephrineprostaglandins and related compoundsThree major functional types ofhormones endocrine example: steroid hormones paracrine example: prostaglandins autocrine example: interleukin-2General characteristics ofhormones hormones are required in very small quantities example 1 molecule of epinephrine --- 1x1011molecule of glucose they are degraded very rapidly, thus are verydifficult to study concentrations vary from 10-6 to 10-12 M from 1 ton of bull testis --- 270 mg oftestosterone modern analytical techniques and chemicalsynthesis are very importantSteroid Hormones Steroid hormone biosynthesis common precursor is cholesterol first step is degradation of side chain viadesmolase and formation of pregnenolone (C21) pregnenolone can then follow several pathways: It can be converted to progesterone which can beconverted into gluco and mineralocorticoids, C21 (inthe adrenal cortex) It can also be converted through several steps intotestosterone (C19) which in turn can be aromatizedinto estradiol (C18)Model of steroid hormone actionSteroid hormone receptorstructure"Z

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