Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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HYPERTENSIONAim of Treatment; To reduce blood pressure hence risk of complications e.g. stroke, coronaryartery disease and cardiac failure. Target blood pressure is 140/90mmg or 130/80mmg in diabetic patients andthose with highest risk cardiovascular disease.Pathophysiology; Blood pressure is the hydrostatic pressure within the systemic arteries and isdetermined by total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. Total peripheral resistance is invariably increased in established hypertension,although causative mechanism is not well understood. Increases in heart rate or cardiac output are not found to be consistent. Blood pressure values are distributed normally ( unimodally) in the populationand there is no clear cut-off between normotensive and hypertensive values. Frequency of hypertension varies according to the age, sex and ethnic origin inthe population studied.Primary and secondary hypertension; Hypertension is either primary or secondary. No underlying cause can be identified in about 90% of cases and theterminology of primary, idiopathic or essential hypertension is applied. There is strong polygenic familial trend and environmental factors e.g. salt,obesity and alcohol consumption also contribute. Secondary hypertension is rare, even in younger age groups. These usuallyhave an endocrine or renal basis.Causes of secondary hypertension;1) Renal diseases;Renovascular disease;i. Renal artery stenos

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