Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Tuesday, December 13, 2011INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN PROTOZOALS INFECTIONSThese includeMalariaAmebiasisTrichomoniasisTrypanosomiasisLeishmaniasisOthers (Babesiosis and Microsporidiosis)AMEBIASISAmebiasis is usually seen on those living in crowded unsanitary conditionsEntamoeba dispar accounts for ~90% of human infections and E. Histolytica for only 10% but only the E. Histolytica causes human dseHumans are the only known hosts for these protozoa, which are transmitted almost exclusively by the feco-oral routeE Histoluytica cysts ingested from contaminated food or water transform into trophozoites that reside in the large interstinesMany individuals infected with E histolytica are asymptomatic but excrete infectious cysts making them a source of further infectionsIn others, E histolytica trophozoites invade the colonic mucosa with resulting colitis and bloody diarrhea (amebic dysentery)Rarely, E histolytica trophozoites invade through the colonic mucosa and reach the liver via the portal circulation, where they establish an amebic liver abscess.// SYMTOMS; tenesmus, mucoid stool, rumbling, blood streaked stool,//Liver abscesses usually amebic or echinococcalTreatment of AmebiasisMetronidazole or its analogs tinidazole and ornidazole are the cornerstone of therapy. Diloxonide Furoate is used in the eradiaction of the cysts of amoeba.Metronidazole and tinidazole are the drugs of choice for amebic colitis, amebic liver abscess and other extraintestinal form of

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