Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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THE OVARY, ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES, INHIBITORS & ANTAGONISTS,& OVULATION - INDUCING AGENTS The ovary has important gametogenic functions that are integrated with itshormonal activity. At puberty, the ovary begins a 30- to 40-year period of cyclic function called themenstrual cycle because of the regular episodes of bleeding that are its mostobvious manifestation. It then fails to respond to gonadotropins secreted by the anterior pituitary gland,and the cessation of cyclic bleeding that occurs is called the menopause.NormalMenstrual Cycle At the beginning of each cycle, a variable number of follicles (vesicular follicles),each containing an ovum, begin to enlarge in response to FSH. After 5 or 6 days, one follicle, called the dominant follicle, begins to developmore rapidly. The outer theca and inner granulosa cells of this follicle multiply and, under theinfluence of LH, synthesize and release estrogens at an increasing rate. The estrogens appear to inhibit FSH release and may lead to regression of thesmaller, less mature follicles. The mature dominant ovarian follicle consists of an ovum surrounded by a fluidfilled antrum lined by granulosa and theca cells. The estrogen secretion reaches a peak just before midcycle, and the granulosacells begin to secrete progesterone. These changes stimulate the brief surge in LH and FSH release that precedesand causes ovulation. When the follicle ruptures, the ovum is released in

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