Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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BronchiectasisCONTENTS Definition Aetiology Pathogenesis Clinical manifestations Diagnosis TreatmentBRONCHIECTASISDefinition: Abnormal and permanent dilation of bronchi.Focal or diffuse distributionClinical consequences chronic and recurrent infectionandPooling of secretions in dilated airways.Classification:1. Cylindrical (fusiform)2. Saccular3. VaricoseAetiology: A. InfectionsMicro-organisms Measles andPertussis Adeno & Influenzavirus Bacterial infectionwith virulentorganisms:S.aureus, KlebsiellaAnaerobes Atypicalmycobacteria Mycoplasma HIV Tuberculosis FungiAETIOLOGY : IMPAIREDHOST DEFENCE Local causes: Endobronchial obstruction Generalised impairment: 1. Immunoglobulin deficiency 2. Primary ciliary disorders 3. Cystic fibrosisAETIOLOGY : NONINFECTIOUS Toxins or toxic substances NH3; gastriccontents Immune responses Inflammatory diseases: ulcerative colitis,rheumatoid arthritis, Sjgren syndrome. -1-Antitrypsin deficiencyCLINICALMANIFESTATIONS Persistent or recurrent cough with purulent sputum. Haemoptysis Initiating episode: Severe pneumonia, or insidiousonset of symptoms or asymptomatic or nonproductive cough dry bronchiectasis in upper lobe, Dyspnoea, wheezing widespread bronchiectasisor underlying COPD. Exacerbation of infection: Sputum volume increase,purulence or blood.PHYSICAL EXAMINATION An

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