Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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F07055-13.qxd7/20/02134:25 PMPage 159Antibiotics (antimicrobials)antibacterial (often called antibiotics, since many arederivatives of naturally produced chemicals)antiviral (Ch. 14)antifungal (Ch. 14)antiprotozoal (Ch. 14)anthelmintic (Ch. 14).13.1 Action and use of antibiotics15913.2 Major antibiotics16113.3 Antibiotics for mycobacterial infections167Self-assessment: questions169Self-assessment: answers171Antibiotics may either kill the microorganism (bactericidal) or may retard their growth (bacteriostatic) so thatthe bodys own immune system can overcome the infection. In clinical use, this distinction is usually not important, but bacteriostatic drugs should not be used inOverviewAntibiotics are substances that kill or inhibit the growth ofmicroorganisms. The first antibiotics were produced by andisolated from microorganisms but subsequently knowledge ofthese agents has been used to synthesise chemotherapeuticagents. Biochemical differences between the host and thepathogen have also been exploited to produce drugs withselective toxicity.In this chapter the major antibiotics are described in termsof their mode of action, their therapeutic use and theiradverse effects. The effect of microbial resistance to drugs isalso covered. The antibiotic regimens used for tuberculosisand leprosy are also discussed.13.1 Action and use of antibioticsLearning objectivesClinical sketchA patient presents

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