Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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Monitoring GA*19 May 200520:58Anaesthetic practice recommends the following standards of routine monitoring in the anaesthetised patient; The continuous presence of an adeptly trained anaesthetist Regular Blood pressure* & Heart Rate* measurements (recorded) Continuous monitoring of the ECG through anaesthesia Continuous analysis of the Oxygen content (SaO2)* & anaesthetic in the inspiratory gas mixture Oxygen supply failure alarm Ventilator disconnection alarm Pulse oximeter Capnography (measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide content) Temperature measurement availability Neuromuscular monitoring availability Spirometry Hourly observation of urine output via a urinary catheter (1-2mL/min = 2.5L/24hrs)Measured with a cathode ray oscilloscopeBlood Pressure Monitoringa)Arterial blood pressure can be assessed either by direct instrumentation of the vascular tree or by indirect means.Indirect Arterial Pressure Monitoring:Indirect techniques usually involve inflating a cuff proximal to the area of interest to occlude the artery. As the cuff isdeflated and inflow resumes, arterial pressure can be determined.i) Palpation-A blood pressure cuff is placed above an easily palpated artery and inflated until the pulse ceases.Upon cuff deflation, systolic pressure is estimated as that pressure at which the pulse reappears. This methodis limited because it underestimates true arterial pressure and does not provide a diastoli

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