Pharmacology notes

Apr 15th, 2015
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13Alimentary tractClinical OverviewThe alimentary tract extends from lips to anus, and the diseases which occur at each component of thetract vary from site to site. Diseases of the various components of the mouth as far as the oropharynx aredealt with in Chapter 12. In this chapter we deal with esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,rectum and anus.In the esophagus the most common disorders are reflux esophagitis (due to exposure of the loweresophagus to gastric acid regurgitating upwards from the stomach) and carcinoma, both squamous andadenocarcinoma being important. In children, esophageal atresia and abnormal developmental links withthe trachea are important congenital malformations.The stomach is an important site of peptic ulceration, the ulceration being due to breakdown of the normalmechanisms which protect the stomach mucosa from its own acid. The recent increase in the use ofendoscopy has shown that chronic gastritis is a frequent and important condition with a number of differentcauses, and may play an etiological role in the eventual development of adenocarcinoma of the stomach.The small intestine is the major site of absorption of the basic food materials, and diseases of smallintestinal mucosa may lead to malabsorption syndromes; an important cause is celiac disease (glutenenteropathy) which is an immune process leading to destruction of the small intestinal mucosa. The smallintestine, particularly ileum, is the most common sit

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