Pharmacology notes

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Pharmacology Semester 1 page 1 of 5By Duy Thai, 1997GENERAL ANAESTHETICS IRequirements for general anesthetics The patient must be unconscious the whole time The rate of induction and rate of recovery must be rapid Recovery must be prompt and not unpleasant The level of anesthesia should be able to be adjusted as required (it must be controllable) The patient must not move unexpectedly - reflex responses are abolished or diminished Gross physiological disturbances must be avoidedGeneral anaesthesia General anesthesia often involves more than one drug to get different, favourable effects. Premedication is often used to:1. Treat anxiety Benzodiazapenes2. Reduce pain Opiod anaglesics such as morphine3. Produce muscle paralysis E.g. Tubocurare4. Reduce secretions Induction of anesthesia is often done via intravenous anesthetics, which are quick and easy to administer. Maintenance of anesthesia involves inhalation agents.Some examples of inhalation anesthetics Used clinically today: Nitrous oxide (N2O) N2O is not potent enough to be used as a anesthetic on its own. It is often used as a carriergas. It has analgesic effects. Halothane (metabolised) IsofluraneThese are not broken down in the body, and are highly stable. Hence, if they Sevofluraneget into the atmosphere, they represent a pollution hazard. Enflurane Older ones (obsolete) CyclopropaneThe reason these drugs are no long

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