Psychiatry notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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MENTAL RETARDATION Terms such as-Mental handicap-Mental deficiency- Mental subnormality- Oligophrenia- Feeble mindednessAll have been used interchangeablyThe term MR is now widely acceptedMR CONT DEFINITION-Mental retardation is a heterogenous disorderconsisting of below average intelluctualfunctioning and impairment in adaptive skills thatis present before the person is 18yrs of ageCAUSES-GENETIC FACTORS-ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS-PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORSCONT INTELLIGENCEDifinition The ability- to learn from experience- To solve problems- To adapt to the demands of socialenvironment and- To form abstract conceptCLASSIFICATIONMILD MR(IQ 50/55-70/75)-85%MODERATE MR(IQ 35/40-50/55)-10%SEVERE MR (20/25-35/40)-3-4%PROFOUND MR (IQ<20/25)-1-2%MENTAL RETARDATION severity unspecifiedwhere there is mental retardation but thepersons intelligence is untestable by stardardtestsEPIDEMIOLOGY The prevalence of mental retardation isbetween 1-3% depending on criteria used Male ;female ratio is 1.5;1 Non biological or sociocultural MR is commonin lower social economic groupETIOLOGY Causative factors includes(1)Genetic factors (chromosal and inheritedcondition)(2) Prenatal exposure to infection and toxins(3)Perinatal trauma eg prematurity,feotal distress(4) Acquired condition such as headtrauma(5) Social cultural factors eg neglect, child abuse etcCHOMOSOMAL CAUSES OF MR(1) Downs syndrome (tri

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