child health notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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Chicken poxVarricellar ZosterIntroduction Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes primary, latent, and recurrentinfections. The primary infection is manifested as varicella (chickenpox) andresults in establishment of a lifelong latent infection of sensoryganglion neurons. Reactivation of the latent infection causes herpes zoster (shingles). Although often a mild illness of childhood, chickenpox can causesubstantial morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy children; itcauses increased morbidity and mortality in adolescents, adults andimmunocompromised persons and predisposes to severe group Astreptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infections.Introduction Chickenpox and zoster can be treated with antiviral drugs. Infection can be prevented by immunization with liveattenuated VZV vaccine. Gestational chickenpox can be severe in the mother andcan cause a rare but distinct intrauterine syndrome. Chickenpox in the newborn can be severe and lifethreatening.Etiology VZV is a neurotropic human herpesvirus withsimilarities to herpes simplex virus, which isalso an -herpesvirus. These viruses are enveloped with doublestranded DNA genomes that encode morethan 70 proteins, including proteins that aretargets of cellular and humoral immunity.Epidemiology Prior to the introduction of vaccine in 1995, varicella was an almostuniversal communicable infection of childhood. Most children were infected by 15 yr of age, w

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