child health notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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Diphtheria(Corynebacterium diphtheriae) Diphtheria is an acute toxic infection causedby Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria was the first infectious disease tobe conquered on the basis of principles ofmicrobiology, immunology, and public health.Etiology Corynebacterium is an aerobic, nonencapsulated, nonspore-forming, mostly nonmotile, pleomorphic, grampositive bacillus. There are three biotypes:- mitis- gravis- intermedius Each is capable of causing diphtheri and aredifferentiated by colonial morphology, hemolysis, andfermentation reactions.C. DiptheriaeEpidemiology C. diphtheriae is an exclusive inhabitant of human mucousmembranes and skin. Spread is primarily by airborne respiratory droplets, direct contactwith respiratory secretions of symptomatic individuals, or exudatefrom infected skin lesions. Asymptomatic respiratory tract carriers are important intransmission. Where diphtheria is endemic, 3-5% of healthy individuals mayharbor toxigenic organisms, but carriage is exceedingly rare ifdiphtheria is rare. Skin infection and skin carriage are silent reservoirs of diphtheria. The incidence then began to decrease, and with the widespread useof diphtheria toxoid in the United States after World War II, itdeclined steadily, with dramatic reductions in the latter 1970s. Although disease incidence has decreased worldwide,diphtheria remains endemic in many developingcountries. Epidemics have been

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