Respiratory diseases

Apr 16th, 2015
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EMPHYSEMAOmari B.G.MbCHb,Mmed.Definition of COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) is a preventable and treatabledisease with some significantextrapulmonary effects that may contributetothepulmonaryseverity incomponentindividual patients. Itsis characterizedby airflow limitation that is not fullyreversible. The airflow limitation is usuallyprogressive and associated with anabnormal inflammatory response of the lungCOPD: an umbrella termUmbrella term used to describe progressivelung diseases which include:EmphysemaChronic bronchitisRefractory (irreversible) asthmaSevere bronchiectasisEmphysemaEmphysema is defined pathologically asan abnormal permanent enlargement ofair spaces distal to the terminalbronchioles, accompanied by thedestruction of alveolar walls and withoutobvious fibrosis.The 3 described morphological types ofemphysema are;centriacinar,panacinar,paraseptal.Centriacinar emphysema begins in therespiratory bronchioles and spreadsperipherally. Also termed centrilobularemphysema, this form is associated with longstanding cigarette smoking and predominantlyinvolves the upper half of the lungs.Panacinar emphysema destroys theentire alveolus uniformly and ispredominant in the lower half of thelungs.Panacinar emphysema generally isobserved in patients with homozygousalpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency.In people who smoke, foca

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