Respiratory diseases

Apr 16th, 2015
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PNEUMONIAOmari B.G.MbCH b, infection of the pulmonaryparenchymais often misdiagnosed, mistreated, andunderestimatedwas typically classified as :Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)Health CareAssociated Pneumonia(HCAP)subcategories of HCAP includingHospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)Factors responsible for infection withmultidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogensinclude :development and widespread use ofpotent oral antibioticsearlier transfer of patients out ofacute-care hospitals to their homesor various lower-acuity facilitiesincreased use of outpatient IVantibiotic therapygeneral aging of the populationPathophysiologyPneumonia results from the proliferation of microbial pathogens at thealveolar level and the host's response to those pathogens Microorganisms gain access to the lower respiratory tract in several ways: The most common is by aspiration from the oropharynx Many pathogens are inhaled as contaminated droplets pneumonia occurs via hematogenous spread contiguous extension from an infected pleural or mediastinal space Mechanical factors are critically important in host defense: hairs and turbinates of the nares catch larger inhaled particles branching architecture of the tracheobronchial tree traps particles on theairway lining mucociliary clearance and local antibacter

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