Pathology notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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OEDEMA, CONGESTION ANDSHOCKDR. Tito, NThe health of cells and tissues depends not only onan intact circulation to deliver oxygen and removewastes but also on normal fluid homeostasis.Normal fluid homeostasis requires vessel wallintegrity as well as maintenance of intravascularpressure and osmolarity within certain physiologicranges.Increases in vascular volume or pressure, decreasesin plasma protein content, or alterations inendothelial function can result in a net outwardmovement of water across the vascular wall.water extravasation into interstitial spaces is callededemaedema may have minimal or profound effects e.g.in the lower extremities edema fluid causesprimarily swelling; in the lungs, can result in lifethreatening breathing difficulties.EDEMAApproximately 60% of lean body weight is water, twothirds of which is intracellular and the remainder is inextracellular compartments.The term edema signifies increased fluid in the interstitialtissue spaces.fluid collections in different body cavities are variouslydesignated hydrothorax, hydropericardium, orhydroperitoneum.Anasarca is a severe and generalized edema with profoundsubcutaneous tissue swelling.There are several pathophysiologic categories ofedema. The mechanism of inflammatory edemamostly involves increased vascular permeability.noninflammatory causes of edemaPathophysiologic Categories of EdemaIncreased Hydrostatic Pressure Impaired venous re

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