Pathology notes

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CarcinogenesisPathology DepartmentCarcinogenesis Overview Definitions Hypotheses of the Origin of Neoplasia Agents Causing Neoplasia NeoplasiaCarcinogenesis Neoplasia Latin, new growth Cancer crab Rupert Willis, 1950s NeoplasiaCarcinogenesis - OverviewNeoplasia is an abnormality of cell growthand multiplication characterised by At cellular levelExcessive cellular proliferationUncoordinated growthTissue infiltrationAt molecular levelDisorder of growth regulatory genesDevelops in a multistep fashionCarcinogenesis OverviewHypotheses of the Origin of Neoplasia1.2.3.4.Oncogenes and Tumor Suppresor GenesViral Oncogene HypothesisEpigenetic HypothesisFailure of Immune SurveillanceAgents Causing NeoplasiaCarcinogenesisHypotheses of the Origin of Neoplasia Originof Neoplasia two general types MonoclonalInitial neoplastic change affects a single cell FieldoriginCarcinogen acts on large number of cellsproducing field of potentially neoplastic cellsCarcinogenesisHypotheses of the Origin of NeoplasiaMultiple Hits and Multiple FactorsKnudson proposed that carcinogenesis requires 2hits1st event initiation2nd event promotionAgent = promoterMultiple hits occur 5 or moreCarcinogen = initiatorEach hit produces a change in the genome which istra

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