Pathology notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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PITUITARY GLANDHP12/70155/11 Adenohypophysis (80% of the gland) NeurohypophysisProduction of its hormones is through +ve acting releasing factor fromhypothalamus except for prolactin which is inhibitory fromhypothalamus through the action of dopamine.Growth hormone also differ in that it receives both stimulatory andinhibitory influences via hypothalamus. 5 cell types of adenohypophysisSomatotrophs( acidophilic, half of all producing cells of adenohyphysis)GHlactotrophs(acidophilic)prolactincorticotrophs(basophilic)ACTH, POMC, MSH, endorphins, lipotropinThyrotrophs(basophilic)TSHGonadotrophs(basophilic)FSH,LH Neurohypophysis Pituicytes Axon terminalsSecrets oxytocin and ADH which are actually synthesized in hypothalamus andstored within axon terminalsClinical manifestation of pituitary disease HyperpituitarisimExcess hormone secretion as a result of pituitary adenoma, hyperplasia , CAof adenohypophysis, ectopic non pituitary tumors ,hypothalamic disorders. Hypopituitarisim-deficiency of hormones due to destructive processes e.g.ischemic injury, surgery, radiation, inflammatory reaction, on-functionalpituitary adenoma Local mass effect-abnormalities of sella turcica(sella expansion, bonyerosion, disruption of diaphragm sella)Can lead to visual field abnormalities,(compress decussating fibers inchiasm),increased ICP For neurohypophysis diseases, clinically observed through increase ordecr

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