Pathology notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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Group 1Presented By; Lewis MusyokaINTRODUCTION Disorders of red cells can result in anemia or, lesscommonly, polycythemia (i.e., an increase in thenumber of red cells). Anemia is a reduction in the oxygen-transportingcapacity of blood, which usually stems from areduction of the total circulating red cell mass tobelow-normal amounts.( Red cell count 106/mm3 Men4.3-5.9 Women 3.5-5.0)CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIASCan be classified according to;the cause Hemorrhagic anemia- Due to blood loss Hemolytic anemia- Due to increased destruction of RBCs Aregenerative anemia-Anemia due to reduced RBC productionmorphology of the RBCsThis correlates with the cause of their deficiency According to the cell size (normocytic e.g. sca, hereditaryspherocytosiss, microcytic e.g. iron deficiency, thalassemia, ormacrocytic e.g. folate or B12 deficiency) According to the degree of hemoglobinization-which is reflected in thecolor of the cells (normochromic or hypochromic)the shape of the cells.e.g. SCA, hereditary spherocytosisImportant indices Mean cell volume (MCV): the average volume per redcell, expressed in femtoliters (cubic microns) Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH): the average content(mass) of hemoglobin per red cell, expressed inpicograms Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): theaverage concentration of hemoglobin in a givenvolume of packed red cells, expressed in grams perdeciliter Red cell distribution width (RDW): t

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