Pathology notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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MALARIABYKEYA M OKERETOMO INTERNMalaria is a febrile illness P. falciparum-mainly, morbidity and mortality Other species-mixed, P. vivax very rareDISTRIBUTION OF MALARIALakeside endemic Transmission- perrenial Immunity acquired before adulthood Morbs and morts high children and preg.Coastal endemic Endemicity same Transmission and max. disease risk periodexhibit seasonalityHighlands Epidemics- rainfall and ambient temp. btn yrsArid seasonal Experience malaria-located near water bodies Low infection prevalence ratesLow malaria riskLow parasite prevalence rateEcological zones for clinical purposesHigh malaria risk areasLow malaria risk areasHighlands within Central ProvinceEpidemiologyCauses 2-3m deaths per year90% occur in subsaharan Africa-underfives and prgnant womenLifecycle Asexual- hypnozoites Sexual- ingest gametocytes dev. SporozoitesModes of transmission Bite of an infected mosquito >90% Blood infected with malaria parasite Needle pricks and organ transplant Vertical transmissionA mosquito must bite at least twice before itcan transmit malariaPathogenesis Cytoadherence- key and lock mechanisms Anaemia Fever Tissue anoxia Immunopathological eventsClinical features and classification1. Uncomplicated malaria-fever presence of peripheral parasitemia-chills, profuse sweating, muscle pains, jointpains, abdominal pains, diarrhea,

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