orthopedics notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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COMPLICATION OF FRACTURESBENJAMIN MUKULU NDELEVACLASSIFICATION EXTRINSIC (GENERAL) vs INTRINSIC (LOCAL) EARLY LATE- IMMEDIATE- INTERMEDIATE (few days/weeks)LOCAL COMPLICATIONSImmediate complications1.Local visceral injury2.Vascular injury3.Nerve injury4.Haemarthrosis5. Ligament injuryLOCAL COMPLICATIONS ctdIntermediate complications1.Fracture blisters2.Plaster sores and Pressure sores4. Compartment syndrome5. Infection6. Nerve entrapment7. Myositis ossificans9.Joint stiffnessLOCAL COMPLICATIONS ctdLate1.Delayed union2. Malunion3. Non-union4.Avascular necrosis5.Muscle contracture6. Joint instability7. Osteoarthritis8. Growth disturbances9. Limb shortening10. AlgodystrophyEXTRINSIC COMPLICATIONS Blood loss - > shock Fat embolism DVT and Thromboembolism Cardiorespiratory failureVISCERAL INJURYEXAMPLES Penetration of the lung -> pneumothoraxfollowing rib fracture Rupture of the bladder or urethra in pelvicfractures. Cord injury in Vertebral fractures Features depend on specific viscera Mx specific for eachVASCULAR INJURY Common sites- Knee & Elbow joints- Humeral & femoral shafts. Vessel either- cut, torn, compressed or contused,- either by initial injury orsubsequently by jagged bone edges. Effects vary from transient diminution of bloodflow to profound ischaemia, tissue death andperipheral gangreneCOMMON VASCULAR INJURIES First rib fracture -

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