medical notes

Apr 16th, 2015
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HEMORRHOIDSDefinition-Are vascular and connective tissue cushions in anal mucosa.-Hemorrhoids function as protective pillows that engorge with blood during the act of defecation, protecting the anal canal from direct trauma due to passage of stool. -Hemorrhoidal tissues engorge when intra-abdominal pressure is increased.This occurs with obesity, pregnancy, lifting, and defecation.ClassificationInternal hemorrhoids-Are found superior to the dentate line and lined with columnar epithelium.-They have autonomic innervation and thus not painful.-They are further classified as:1st degree, Do not prolapse only bleeding announces their presence2nd degree -Spontaneously reducing prolapse at defecation3rd degree, prolapse requiring manual replacement;4th degree, permanent prolapse. External hemorrhoids -Are found below the dentate line and lined by squamous epithelium .-Are innervated by cutaneous nerves that supply the perianal area. These nerves include the pudendal nerve and sacral plexus. Thus are very painful.Etiology-not clearly known but risk factors1. Pregnancy2. Colon malignancy3. Liver disease-Portal hypertension4. Constipation5. low-fiber diets cause s

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