medical notes

Apr 17th, 2015
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MECONIUM ASPIRATION SYNDROMEDefinitionThis is a severe pulmonary disease characterized by chemical pneumonitis and mechanical obstruction of the airways. Aspiration of meconium by the fetus, leading to chemical pneumonitis and mechanical obstruction of bronchi after delivery.Meconium: The first intestinal discharges of the newborn infant, greenish in color and consisting of epithelial cells, mucus, and bileEtiologyMeconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is usually a complication of Placental insufficiency (e.g. in maternal preeclampsia, hypertension, or postmaturity).OligohydramniosFetal stressCord compressionIn response to stress, the fetus passes meconium stools and gasps forcefully, thus inhaling meconium mixed with amniotic fluid into the lungs. It results from peripartum inhalation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, leading to inflammation of pulmonary tissues and hypoxia. MAS is often most severe in postterm infants who have reduced amniotic fluid volume, because the less dilute, thicker meconium is more likely to cause airway obstructionThe risk for MAS and associated respiratory failure is considerably increased when the meconium is thick or particulate and when it is associated with perinatal asphyxia.There is also evidence that the free fatty acids in meconium strip away alveolar surfactant In severe cases, the pathological process progresses to persistent pulmonary hypertension, other morbidity, and death. Even with prompt and appropriate therapy,

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