medical notes

Apr 17th, 2015
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MATERNAL PHYSIOLOGY DURING PREGNANCYGastrointestinal tractDuring pregnancy nutritional requirements are increasedThe mother's appetite usually increases, so food intake is greaterSome women have a decreased appetite or experience nausea and vomiting These symptoms may be related to relative levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In rare instances, women may crave bizarre substances such as clay, cornstarch, soap, or even coal.Oral CavitySalivation may seem to increase due to swallowing difficulty associated with nauseaThe gums may become hypertrophic and hyperemic; often, they are so spongy and friable that they bleed easily. This may be due to increased systemic estrogen; similar problems sometimes occur with the use of oral contraceptives.Vitamin C deficiency also can cause tenderness and bleeding of the gums.Gastrointestinal MotilityElevated estrogen concentrations mediate the effect by enhancing nitric oxide release from the nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerves that modulate gastrointestinal motility.Stomach & EsophagusMore commonly, gastric acidity is reduced. Production of the hormone gastrin increases significantly, resulting in increased stomach volume and decreased stomach pH. Gastric production of mucus may be increased. Esophageal peristalsis is decreased, and is accompanied by gastric reflux because of the slower emptying time and dilatation or relaxation of the cardiac sphincter. Gastric reflux is more prevalent in later pregnancy

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