medical notes

Apr 17th, 2015
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EMPYEMA THORACISDefinitionPresentationPathophysiologyInvestigations-Lab and ImagingManagement-Medical -SurgicalDefinitionEmpyema is a localized or free collection of purulent material in the pleural space .It is an advanced Para pneumonic effusion.Para pneumonic Pleural effusions are divided into 3 based on pathogenesis 1.Uncomplicated pleural effusion-Exudative predominantly neutrophilic effusion that occurs as the lung interstitial fluid increases during pneumonia. These effusions are resolved with appropriate antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. 2. Complicated pleural effusion Bacterial invasion of the pleural space that leads to an increased number of neutrophils, pleural fluid acidosis, and elevated lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration. These effusions often are sterile because bacteria are usually cleared rapidly from the pleural space3. Thoracic empyema. Thoracic empyema is characterized by either aspiration of pus on thoracentesis or the presence of bacterial organisms on Gram stain. A positive culture is not required for diagnosis.Etiology -Predisposition1. Pulmonary infection-Unresolved pneumonia - Acute bacterial

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