medical notes

Apr 18th, 2015
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OVARIAN CYSTSDefinitionAn ovarian cyst is a sac filled with liquid or semi-liquid material arising in an ovary.PathophysiologyEach month, normally functioning ovaries develop small cysts called Graafian follicles. At mid cycle, a single dominant follicle up to 2.8 cm in diameter releases a mature oocyteThe ruptured follicle becomes the corpus luteum, which, at maturity, is a 1.5- to 2-cm structure with a cystic center. In the absence of fertilization of the oocyte, it undergoes progressive fibrosis and shrinkage. If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum initially enlarges and then gradually decreases in size during pregnancyOvarian cysts arising in the normal process of ovulation are called functional cysts and are always benign. They may be follicular and luteal, sometimes called theca-lutein cysts. These cysts can be stimulated by gonadotropins, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).Multiple functional cysts can occur as a result of excessive gonadotropin stimulation or sensitivity. In gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma) and rarely in multiple and diabetic pregnancy, hCG causes a condition called hyperreactio luteinalis. In patients being treated for infertility, ovulation induction with gonadotropins (FSH and luteinizing hormone [LH]), and rarely clomiphene citrate, may lead to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, especially if accompanied by hCG administrationNeoplasti

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